Grays Surgical Anatomy is best guide book for general students
Grays Surgical Anatomy is one of the best guide book for general Surgery aspirants as well as first year anatomy students to get most out of it.since after so many requests from peoples who like this finally we have uploaded it.
The history of surgery is marked by a series of revolutionary advances usually made by a single pioneer and his or her disciples. Such advances have occurred with ever-increasing frequency over the last century.
The first surgeons were those men and women, now lost in time, who became experts at binding up the wounds, splinting the fractures and lancing the abscesses of their fellows, as well as dealing with a surprising number of other ills. We can visualize their activities in the reports of explorers and medical missionaries of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries from such diverse and isolated places as the Atlas Mountains of North Africa, the jungles of Central Africa and the forests of Borneo. Trephination of the skull, management of arrow and other wounds, drainage of abscesses and numerous other procedures were witnessed being performed by surgeons who had never previously encountered outside visitors. Most remarkable, in 1884, Robert Felkin MD recorded and drew a ‘classical’ caesarean section performed in what is now Uganda, the patient first being intoxicated with banana wine. When Felkin left, 11 days later, both mother and child were well.
The early surgeons were pragmatic. Wounds involving brain, thoracic or abdominal viscera or the major arteries were known to be lethal and, by and large, were left untreated. Fractured limbs were straightened and splinted, and kept immobilized till clinical union was achieved. The appearance of pus in a wound, called ‘laudable pus’, was regarded as a good prognostic sign, in contrast to spreading gangrene, which usually presaged death. Remarkably, a drawing of circumcisions being performed has been recovered from Memphis, in ancient Egypt, dated as between 3000 and 2400 BCE. The operation was practised widely in the ancient world, as a ritual rather than for any surgical reason.
‘Cutting for the stone’, perineal lithotomy for vesical calculi, was performed by ancient Hindu, Greek, Roman and Arab surgeons. Many of their patients were children, but why this was a common disease in children still remains a mystery.
The pathology of war wounds underwent a radical change with the introduction of gunpowder and firearms in Europe in the fourteenth century. Gunpowder was first used at the battle of Crécy in 1346, when Philip VI of France was defeated by Edward III. The gross tissue destruction produced by musket and cannon shot provided the anaerobic conditions for tetanus and gas gangrene, which now became all too common. It was assumed that the cause was the gunpowder. The remedy? Destroy this poison in the wound with cautery or with boiling oil; the latter was the more popular since it was recommended in the standard textbook of the Italian surgeon Giovanni da Vigo (1450–1525), which went through 40 editions in many languages. Of course, the ‘treatment’ actually made matters worse.